Social Development Focus

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Wiki Loves Monuments (South Africa) Conceptual Document /Social Development Focus

1. Abstract

This document outlines the prospects of social development and impact that Wiki Loves Monuments 2012 (WLM-2012) will have in South Africa including possible social outreach and increased awareness with regards to heritage sites in our country. A target market and demographic profiling of the prospective participant is identified and detailed according to race; gender; location and age groups. Technological blocks to full participation by wider sections of population are explored and solutions to overcome these, discussed. Mission aligned partnership between Wikimedia ZA; Government departments and Private corporations are probed to identify mutual benefits for each of the parties in facilitating WLM-2012 as a joint venture.


2. Social Development Focus

South Africa has a unique historical, archaeological, natural and cultural heritage that spans the entire spectrum of human evolution and social development on the planet. Within this heritage is the finite and irreplaceable evidence of human activities, settlement and lifestyle spanning from recent history to more than 2-million years ago. Many heritage sites are threatened daily by development, negligence and ignorance. The environmental and heritage legislation requires that all heritage resources are protected – all places or objects of aesthetic, architectural, historical, scientific, social, spiritual, linguistic or technological value or significance.[1]

WLM-2012 seeks to raise public awareness about heritage sites and objects of cultural significance. Social inclusion and cohesion means that South Africans are aware of their heritage sites and objects enough for them to value and protect them. This is the social development focus of this competition, that our people can participate in creating a free visual online catalogue of our national heritage sites and items that can be accessed and enjoyed by all of us in South Africa and the world at large. It is hoped that in the process, South Africans can come to understand more about themselves as a nation and the rich historical, archaeological, natural and cultural heritage they possess.

It is envisioned that by means of this competition, the heritage bias of former governments can be finally redressed to be more representative of the entire populous. The current heritage resources lists are in many cases outdated and were created decades ago when total representation was not a priority. The current idea is to ask the greater community what heritage sites they believe should be added to these official lists, in order to represent all of South African culture and history equitably.

3. Target Market Demographics

Here we outline the sections of the South African population that are the targets for involvement and exposure to WLM-2012. The profiling is based on recent studies into population behaviours with regards to participation on printed, voice and visual media and general social networking.

South Africa has a diverse demographic profile. According to recent statistics from Statistics South Africa, South Africa had 50,59 million people in mid 2011 (See Annex A for a detailed breakdown statistics). Fifty-two per cent (approximately 26,07 million) are female. The following sections unpacks the sum further.

3.1 Age groups:

From trends relating to common electronic gadget usage, there are two age group bands that are the obvious targets for this competition.

The first is the age group is between 15 and 34 years old. These are the main users/consumers of technology gadgets and specific social networks. They are what we call the techno-savvy third generation (3G). According to statistics they account for 38% of the total population at an estimated total of 18,714,750. This is the main target group.

The second age group is between 35 and 54 years old. These are usually the providers of finance to the previous group. They are clued up on technological gadgets, but are likely to be loyal to a particular brand or a specific utility gadget. A considerable percentage of this age group uses social networks, however it is well below 50%. They are however considered for this competition as they will most likely be guardians and may have a profound interest in cultural heritage education. According to statistics they account for almost 21% of the total population at an estimated total of 10,496,212. this is the secondary target group. It worth noting that this age group has more knowledge and experience of recent south african history and previous inequalities, thus their input will be personal.

Thus when only considering age groups, the estimated reach of the competition is around 29,210,962 people, this represents almost 59% of the population. This estimated reach is refined in subsections below. There is no way and neither is it intended to exclude interested participants who are outside of the earmarked age groups.

3.2 Race:

With race being an important factor in any social development, it becomes important to do a racial profile of the above groups.

Of the 18,714,750 people in the age band target market between the ages of 15 and 34, 82.8% are black; 8.3 % coloured; 2.4% Indian/Asian and 6.5% are white. This poses a great difficulty, considering that the bulk of this target market is still technologically marginalised due to economic factors. Section 4 discusses how WLM-2012 intends to solve this problem of the technology divide.

The remaining 10,496,212 people in the target market between the ages of 35 and 54 comprises of 73% black; 11.7 % coloured; 3.2% Indian/Asian, with 12% being white.

Thus, when factoring race and possible exclusion of some sections of the population based on perceived technological divide, it is valid to assume that the total number of expected participants will sharply decrease by a factor of at least 40% down to approximately 17,526,577 that can be reached without any interventions to address the issue of technology divide. This statistical analysis is only indicative as there is currently no academic study on qualitative impact of technological divide based on race within this age group.

3.3 Gender:

In line with the national gender drive to improve female participation, we can further analyse the above figures on gender basis.

Of the total 18,714,750 people in the age band target market between the ages of 15 and 34, 50.1% is female (broken down according to the final total as 41.5% black; 4.2 % coloured; 1.2% Indian/Asian and 3.2% white). This also puts a sharp decrease on the estimated reach of the competition, given the nature of a patriarchal economic climate. Current studies show increased female participation in the economic arena, and WLM-2012 intends to focus on encouraging more participation from the female section of the population.

In the remaining 10,496,212 people in the target market representing those between the ages of 35 and 54, 53.5% is female (with the total population broken down as 39.5% black; 6.2 % coloured; 1.6% Indian/Asian and 6.2% to be white). The higher percentage of females in this band, further bolsters the need for a gender focus in the WLM-2012 as this group is essential for the successful participation of the younger age group.

Thus, when factoring gender and possible exclusion of some sections of the population based on perceived financial divide, it is valid to assume that the total number of expected participants could decrease (by a factor of at least 25%) to approximately 14,021,261. This number is those people that can be reached without any interventions to address the issue of gender divide.

3.4 Geolocation:

Location in South Africa has an influence in one’s ability to access information. As such, the closer one is to the economic hub centres in SA, the better is the level of access to information for the individual. Below we analyse the above figures on geolocation basis.

Of the 18,714,750 people in the age band target market between the ages of 15 and 34, 14% is in Eastern Cape; 5.5% in Freestate; 21.4% Gauteng, 22% in Kwazulu Natal, 11.6% in Limpopo, 7.6% in Mpumalanga; 2.1% in Northern Cape, 6.2% in North West and 9.7% in Western Cape. This can pose a logistical challenge with regards to finding adequate number of volunteers and organisers for the competition in each of the nine provinces.

The remainder of 10,496,212 people in the age band target market between the ages of 35 and 54 comprises of the following geolocation representation: 11.1% is in Eastern Cape; 5.7% in Freestate; 28.2% Gauteng, 19% in Kwazulu Natal, 8.6% in Limpopo, 6.7% in Mpumalanga; 2.2% in Northern Cape, 6.7% in North West and 11.8% in Western Cape.

Thus, when factoring geolocation and possible exclusion of some sections of the population based on perceived logistical issue, it is valid to assume that the total number of expected participants will decrease. If we assume that logistical manpower has a direct proportional relationship to the expected total number of participants, then the total of 14,021,261 deduced from the previous subsection decreases by a factor of at least 45% down to approximately 7,711,694 that can be reached without any interventions to address the issue of geolocation of expected participants. The foregoing figure represents 15% of the total population that WLM-2012 would be able to reach with all socioeconomic factors taken into consideration.

This is still a very respectable percentage of the South African population to warrant funding a competition of this nature. The following section discusses technological intervention measures designed to address the identified factors that excludes a large percentage of the population from participation.

4. Technology Plan:

Technology is a very crucial aspect of this project and determines the success or failure of the competition. People will be expected to capture photographs of monuments (heritage sites); museum or locations of cultural significance. Digital cameras; smart mobile phones and tablets are the expected tools that will be used by a prospective participant. Of the three tools, the smart mobile phone is expected to be the tool of choice to the expected participant.

4.1 Mobile phones as main tool:

According to mobileactive survey of 2006, 96% of the country's population was covered by mobile telephony. The bi-annual All Media Products Survey (AMPS) of 2009, at least 70% of the South African population own a cell phone[2]. Unfortunately prepaid cell phones are most common making up to 61% of cell phone ownership. This means that it is difficult to ascertain the percentage of smart phones with camera and internet connectivity from the prepaid cellphone market. An encouraging report from a survey of high school learners in South Africa by the Youth Research Unit at the University of South Africa (UNISA), found that 98-99% of high school learners across all school types owned a cellphone [3].

Cell Phones provide a relatively cheaper access than other internet technologies. Goldstuck (2010) report showed that for 450,000 users, cell phones are their primary form of access to the internet [4]. Latest figures will most definitely show an interesting upward trend in this regard, with the recent explosion of Facebook and other social networks.

Furthermore, the data from Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) is more revealing. According to the council report of 2007, at least 33.1 percent of households nationwide have access to telephone communications via cell phones. Gauteng, North West, Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and the Free State have higher average household access to cellphones than the national average. Mpumalanga, Limpopo, Northern Cape and the Eastern Cape are below the national average, with Eastern Cape lowest in this comparison [5]. Latest figures will most definitely show an interesting upward trend in this regard, with the recent explosion of Facebook and other social networks.

From above reports, we therefore deduce that enabling the use of cell phones (in the form of mobile upload pages and social networks) will maximise the competition’s reach into the target markets identified previously. This means that measures must be taken to expose and further educate the expected participant on how to get the best out of their cell phones in this competition.

5. Information gathering during upload/Submission :

One of the important tasks during the competition will be gathering information from users. WLM-2012 will require the user to upload a photograph/s, to supply information on his/her age group; gender; race and geolocation. The process will be made as effortless and intuitive as possible. The aim of this exercise is to reconcile the expected participant to the individual who actually took part. In so doing, it will be possible to refine marketing methods and to recognise areas and sections of the population for the marketing effort of future competitions.

6. Natural corporate partners:

This is a competition that showcases the nation’s heritage sites, museums and monuments. As such, there are natural partners and stakeholders in the project. The following explores such partners and what they stand to gain in this joint venture.

6.1 Government departmental partnerships:

There are two governmental departments, at national and provincial level that would have a direct interest in this joint venture. These are National Department of Arts and Culture (Under whom The South African Heritage Resources Agency or SAHRA and the National Heritage Council operate) and the provincial Heritage Resources Authorities/Departments and the Department of Education at national and provincial levels. The following sub-sections delve further into how these two fit in the scheme of things.

6.1.1 Department of Arts and Culture together with Provincial Heritage Departments:

The vision of the Department of Arts and Culture is to develop and preserve South African culture to ensure social cohesion and nation-building[6]. This mandate is passed down and delegated to Provincial Heritage Authorities and Departments who are authorised to act on the mandate. The WLM-2012 could help both the departments to achieve their mandates by:

  • Focusing public attention on South Africa’s Heritage and History during the Heritage Month of September;
  • Drawing people into Museums and other heritage areas on Heritage Day;
  • Providing updated, contemporary photographs of listed heritage sites (that can be extracted from the competition and used freely by Provincial Heritage Resources Authorities such as Heritage Western Cape and other similar organizations).
  • Implementing a ‘treasure hunt’ to map or find a site whose location is unknown by the Heritage Departments (prizes can be given for this section);
  • Potentially geolocation of many of the sites that are not yet mapped; and
  • Receiving motivations from the general populace for heritage sites, resources and areas that have not yet been identified or classified as such in the national database.

The Heritage Western Cape and SAHRA have approved and endorsed WLM-2012. They have seen the competitions potential and are excited to partner with the Wikimedia-ZA chapter in hosting and running the first South African Wiki Loves Monuments. It is hoped that the other national and provincial government departments and stakeholders will follow suit in making this competition and national exercise a success.

6.1.2 National and Provincial Departments of Basic Education:

The vision of the Department of Basic Education (DBE) is of a South Africa in which all our people have access to lifelong learning, as well as education and training, which will, in turn, contribute towards improving the quality of life and building a peaceful, prosperous and democratic South Africa [7]. How better to do this than to intensify lifelong learning by encouraging learners to invest in their culture by participating in the identification, catalog and promotion of South African heritage sites and artifacts during Heritage Month? WLM-2012 enables the DBE to:

  • Focus learners’ attention on Heritage and History during Heritage Month;
  • Assist learners to identify themselves with in the cultural diversity of South Africa;
  • Assist learners to know more about the different cultures in South Africa; and
  • Initiating learners in living history with discussions on what is a monument, and what has been left off the list in their local environment.

6.2 Private enterprise partnership:

Cell phone network companies and cellphone manufacturing companies are the obvious natural partner in this proposed joint venture, as the intended logistic method of capturing and uploading the competition photos uses their core businesses. These companies have the following to gain in this proposed joint venture.

  • Association with the celebration of contemporary South African heritage during heritage month.
  • The ideal forum to showcase and exhibit the full capability of smart phones and data usage.
  • WLM-2012 is the best platform for companies to fulfill their social responsibilities via a wide and diverse section of the South African population.

All natural partners will be offered to be part of the WLM-2012’s Local Organising Committee (LOC) in order to keep abreast of the competition’s progress and participate in adjudicating provincial and national finalists. They will also be given the opportunity to host prize-giving functions and galas. This is intended to give each partner a vital role in how the WLM-2012 impacts the social development objectives of the nation, by utilising technology and heritage to cut through inherent socio-economic obstacles and to allow South Africans a chance to celebrate heritage in unison.

7. Wikipedia and South African users:

The South African population uses Wikipedia and related sister projects very often on a daily basis. Wikimedia statisticians estimates that Wikipedia has at least 20 million hits a month from South Africa, with an average of 700,000 unique hits a day [8]. We are currently studying and classifying unique visitors in order to enhance our site to suit. The following figures are monthly aggregates of wikipedia language sites that South Africans visit and use [9]:

Wikipedia language site visited
Language Views/month # Articles
English 15000000 3975293
Zulu 144720 564
Afrikaans 4677840 22430
Xhosa 60480 144
Sesotho 39600 155
Northern Sotho 61920 611
Tswana 86400 483
Tsonga 84240 212
Venda 70560 174

Total: 20,000,000

From the above figures, it is clear that South Africans are building a healthy relationship with Wikipedia. Wikimedia-ZA aims to improve above numbers and encourage the support and use of the remainder of South African languages using WLM-2012 as a launch pad.

8. Conclusion and looking forward

This report has analysed the snapshot picture of South Africa with regards to social development and how specific national goals can be achieved through the WLM-2012 to be held during the heritage celebration month in 2012. This will be the first of many Wiki Loves Monuments competitions through which Wikimedia-ZA intends to contribute to social cohesion by getting South Africans involved in identification, cataloguing, protection and publication of cultural Heritage sites and artifacts.

For a detailed logistics report on the WLM-2012, please see “WLM-2012 Presentation Report” presented by Wikimedia-ZA.

9. Condensed tables of South African 2011 mid-year population report

Total Population: 50,586,757

South African 2011 mid-year population report: Age group between 15 and 34:

Grouped by races

15-19 2184734 2163195 4347929 206987 205394 412381 52789 52189 104978 158767 151393 310160 2603277 2572171 5175448
20–24 2052918 2035857 4088775 194879 194522 389401 56632 56427 113059 157556 151584 309140 2461985 2438390 4900375
25–29 1858498 1947992 3806490 180483 189113 369596 59991 59411 119402 150937 151751 302688 2249909 2348267 4598176
30–34 1639101 1618682 182233 195421 377654 56360 56447 119402 112807 143492 149015 292507 2021186 2019565 4040751
15 - 34 7735251 7765726 15500977 764582 784450 1549032 225772 224474 450246 610752 603743 1214495 9336357 9378393 18714750 Totals
41.3% 41.5% 82.8% 4.1% 4.2% 8.3% 1.2% 1.2% 2.4% 3.3% 3.2% 6.5% 18.5% 18.5% 37%  % of population
Grouped by provinces

15-19 824072 284917 891706 1195857 684142 407625 113483 318942 454704
20–24 735065 275489 939693 1096194 597516 385828 102803 308611 459230
25–29 601534 256560 1050362 998783 499372 347398 91481 277857 474829
30–34 450087 218273 1119213 823321 382577 282995 79596 251920 432769
15 - 34 2610758 1035239 4000974 4114155 2163607 1423846 387363 1157330 1821532 Totals
14% 5.5% 21.4% 22% 11.6% 7.6% 2.1% 6.2% 9.7%  % of population

South African 2011 mid-year population report: Age group between 35 and 54:

Grouped by races

35–39 1374876 1457977 2832853 182986 200661 383647 47190 48075 95265 139663 148739 288402 1744715 1855452 3600167
40–44 858347 1014100 1872447 155003 174301 329304 42067 43304 85371 159180 166630 325810 1214597 1398335 2612932
45–49 678158 875485 1553643 132697 151767 284464 38927 40707 79634 160491 166350 326841 1010273 1234309 2244582
50–54 601060 800234 1401294 107752 125713 233465 35198 37389 72587 161132 170053 331185 905142 1133389 2038531
35 - 54 3512441 4147796 7660237 578438 652442 1230880 163382 169475 332857 620466 651772 1272238 4874727 5621485 10496212 Totals
33.5% 39.5% 73% 5.5% 6.2% 11.7% 1.6% 1.6% 3.2% 5.9% 6.2% 12.1% 9.6% 11.1% 20.7%  % of population
Grouped by provinces

35-39 376453 195857 1053422 710320 313766 245715 73188 228926 402520
40–44 281515 151602 746905 487821 221810 176187 58852 174087 314153
45–49 255463 131036 615180 420211 195676 151163 51365 153061 271427
50–54 256504 118400 547481 374063 173912 128852 49463 142744 247112
35 - 54 1169935 596895 2962988 1992415 905164 701917 232868 698818 1235212 Totals
11.1% 5.7% 28.2% 19% 8.6% 6.7% 2.2% 6.7% 11.8%  % of population

Download the full population report here.

10. Key to abbreviations used:




  • M = MALE
  • F = FEMALE

11. References:

  1. -- Cultural resource and heritage management (CRM) - by ASAPA.
  2. -- e-Literate - by Laura Czerniewicz.
  3. -- New media usage and behaviour among adolescents in selected schools of gauteng - by Prof. DH Tustin, Dr. I van Aardt & MS GS Shai- Berau of Market Resarch UNISA.
  4. -- The valuable Goldstuck report is the Internet Access in South Africa 2010 study, conducted by World Wide Worx 2010.
  5. -- Mapping communicatons access in South Africa - HSRC Review - Vol 5 No. 3 - Sept 2007.
  6. -- Department of Arts and Culture - Vision and Mission.
  7. -- Department of Basic Education - Vision and Mission.
  8. -- Wikipedia Hits from South Africans.
  9. -- Wikipedia views from South Africans based on languages.
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